Saturday, May 23, 2020

Market Saturation - China Mobile Phone Industry - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2137 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? China is the largest national market for mobile phones and is a great source of revenues for companies. But as China’s economic rise and growth, its mobile phone market has grown and gone extremely fast, as possessing a smartphone has become a part of what Chinese people need to show their success and their money and as technology quickly gets upgraded. What could a market saturation mean and imply for phone manufacturing companies? A saturation of the Chinese mobile phones market underlines that people won’t be buying as much products as they used to during the last few years, and that there are enough brands constituting the national offer. And there are phones for all tastes, premiums (Samsung, Apple), low-cost (Xiaomi) or â€Å"improved† knock-offs. A new brand which would want to enter the Chinese market would have some difficulties to meet success, unless it benefits from a good reputation from the rest of the world –in the cas e of a foreign company. But the recent example of Xiaomi possibly shows that the best strategy to set is to rely on an effective differentiation. High screen resolution phones, customizable phones, â€Å"lifeproof† phones, â€Å"phablet† phones, game-oriented phones are some of the various potential differentiations for new brands that could succeed in the Chinese market. The last part of the article reads about the wants of China as far as mobile phones are concerned. It seems that most Chinese people now have higher expectations for their smartphones – China is not an under-developed country anymore and has to be considered as a market with elaborated and evolved needs. As their level of life increases and there are more and more rich people in China, the customers start to â€Å"Westernize† their expectations, and companies have to take that into account in order not to undergo too many problems facing the market saturation. Mobile phones now have t o be cool, connected, fast, and multi-tasking – as the Western standards. Here is a significant topic: the labor issues in China. Foreign companies tend to benefit from the very lax Chinese legislation on work conditions. The articles even reads about deaths caused by overwork. Is the issue that serious in China? It is widely known that Chinese people are considered good workers and that China is very interesting for foreign companies that wants to reduce their costs by having a hardworking though cheap workforce to assemble their products. Many firms benefit from the Chinese labor conditions in China, which have even been part of the economic rise of the Asian country for 30 years. The first big reveal of such practice was the Nike case, the company being accused of using sweatshops with intolerable work conditions in China in the 1990’s. Nowadays, it is Apple which is under the observation of many organizations and Westerners – mainly because of its huge success in the whole world, I think; smaller companies with less cultural impact may have the same HR issues but they’re not important enough to be at the center of a controversy. Contrary to what many would think, there are labor laws in China, applicable to all companies, whether local or foreign, as the article emphasizes. Workers at Apple factories are dedicated to their job: there are dorms, they work all day long, they are underpaid, whatever the law says. Apple do not respect legal work conditions, but what could anyone do? Who is to blame for? Apple is an American-based company and Foxconn is owned but a Taiwanese multinational – that is a major problem. Furthermore, both companies are extremely successful and prolific so why would they change their practices whereas it works extremely well like this? The many suicides and deaths that happened in Foxconn factories could be a red signal, but Apple always finds explanations to take the blames off itself. S uch problem is then, to me, relatively difficult to overcome, whatever the efforts of the Chinese government or external organizations. Foreign capitalist companies have always seemed to be taking advantage of China and Chinese workers that way, it will be complicated to make them understand that they should act differently. This article focuses on Chinese innovation concerning the mobile phone industry – which means phones as well as applications. Strong brands such as Xiaomi or WeChat participate in the apparent mobile innovation in China. But are all those brands really creative and original? Can we say that China is a major country in mobile innovation? Didi seems to be just a copy of Uber created in the US, WeChat a knock-off of WhatsApp and Weibo the Chinese Facebook and Twitter – both being forbidden in China. But looking deeper, it is easy to see that those smartphone applications stand out compared to their Western equivalents, as the article points out. As well, Xiaomi is a low cost mobile phone company that offers products much more evolved than the low cost brands the US or Europe have – and the success of the brand goes now even beyond the Chinese boundaries. In that sense, it could be said that Chinese companies really are innovative but even more we can say that they actually improve what Westerners do – that is where their innovation spirit stands. Indeed, China uses what the rest of the world creates to adapt it to its local market and making it even better. That is how I see innovation in China: the Chinese do not really create from nothing, they are great observers as well as replicators and invent upgraded and evolved versions of Western ideas. Besides, I would add that this is a patriotic behavior, as I see it: China culturally rejects foreign brands and act against them and sometimes above them by â€Å"nationalizing† their ideas and making them even better – the well-known counterfeiting ta lent of China is one example. Therefore, I agree with the author’s opinion, calling China a new leader in the mobile phone market. As for the government helping and supporting innovation, it is something that I could easily believe, as China started a great innovation plan from 2006. This could enable more and more entrepreneurs-to-be (or foreign talents) to create their companies and start to innovate. Because of its History and culture, China has long been a non-innovating country – a consequence of Maoism and forced egalitarianism with all sign of capitalism and enrichment eliminated – and now it appears to change. I believe it will intensify in the future thanks to government policies and its will to fight IP thefts and to highlight innovation: this is just what China needs to support its economic growth and to be considered as a true leader – and to frighten the rest of the world. The article sets an overview of what the mobile phone retail mar ket looks like now and what it should be like in the future. Phone makers companies have to be aware of its evolution in order to best sell their products, in a very fragmented and coming-to-saturation market. Given the facts in the article, what issues for mobile phones companies can be brought out? E-commerce is about to grow subsequently in the next few years. It is a logical evolution, as China has been used for a long time – earlier than the West, actually – to online shopping and delivery, for whatever type of products, with successful websites such as Taobao or Alibaba. E-commerce sites are big competitors and threats to phone stores, and local as well as foreign understood it and now manage to adapt to the Chinese’s wants: Apple is, for example, extremely present online in China. What I learn from this article is that the Chinese change their habits. While the mobile phone market is hitting saturation (see first article), not only manufacturer comp anies but also retailers have to innovate and differentiate from their competitors in order to stay relevant and effective. China is a fast-moving country and then trends are always moving and are pretty unpredictable – and this has been that way for 30 years. Companies and retailers have to be aware of that. Local brands, as they know their market and are easily adaptable, would have less worries than foreign brands which have to build a strong understanding of China and its people – very hard job. Such polemic does not give a good image of Chinese products – if it could get even worse. Westerners (maybe only French people actually, but I think it is a general trend in the West) are paranoid concerning made-in-China products – and even more when they are from Chinese brands! They are always suspicious about that country and whatever comes from it – prejudice of bad quality, no security. So I can understand how the West has reacted when they hea rd that a Chinese brand could have been involved in political matters and spying activities against the US and Australia. China is the villain and a dangerous nation (eventhough the US themselves spied the whole world with their NSA, for different matters)!! Huawei has since then – whether the security issue and other suspicions have been actually proved or not – become a â€Å"threat to national security†. This is bad advertisement for the company that is already reputed for selling bad mobile phones and it could cause problems concerning their international expansion. Following this affair, Huawei could lose market shares in the West, people’s trust in Chinese products – or even more in China in itself – getting even more damaged. After that security issue, Huawei has been blamed for many other things such as financing Iran or the Taliban from Afghanistan. I think – whether it is true or not – it is mainly a way to crea te bad feelings from the world against China, as it was the case against Japan during the protectionist times of the US Japan-bashing. An anti-Chinese sentiment would be good as the country becomes more and more powerful economically – partly thanks to the West – and could threaten other economies. This could also easily be seen as a form of xenophobia, a fear of China, in the sense that the Western world cannot really do anything to stop or prevent the expansion of China globally or in their own country. If it works, Chinese brands and especially Huawei could have a lot of trouble entering foreign markets. China is very well known in the Western world for being a big place in terms of counterfeited items and knock-offs of everything, from products to entire brands and services. And, of course, mobile phones are no exception. Why do the Chinese counterfeit so much? What are the benefits of it for them? Counterfeiting seems to be an entire part of Chinese culture, which even has a name – Shanzhai. For the few weeks I have spent in Beijing, I have seen many knock-offs of brands such as Louis Vuitton, Apple or KFC. It is noticeable anywhere, thus Shanzhai appears to be a really well spread practice in China and something that seems to be accepted and natural. Concerning mobile phones, Apple and Samsung knock-offs can be found anywhere, in â€Å"fake† stores or in markets. What the article suggests is that it stands as a solution to employment and as a support of economic development. I can see the employment point – copying every possible brand multiply the job offer in China, whose unemployment rate appears to be 4.10% – but as far as economic development is concerned, I personally see the Shanzhai culture more as a threat than as a support. Indeed, relationships with foreign companies and investment might be damaged by such practices and so much counterfeiting could be seen as a lack of Chinese innovation (or, on the contrary, as another form of innovation? Adapting foreign products to the wants of the Chinese market? I don’t really think so). It appears as a problem, as well as IP rights unrespect in the country show, and as an unfair competition for brands who sell the original products. Shanzhai hurts growth, in the sense that it reduces China’s competitiveness and this is not good for business in the country. This practice thus has a big impact in the Chinese world. It seems to be really inherent to China, loyal to Asian and Confucian values (collectivism, â€Å"we† stronger than â€Å"I†, fear of failure, importance of money for success, rejection of Western brands and beliefs†¦). But can the Chinese change? Actually, the government is trying to make things change by reinforcing IP laws for example, and I think it is a good way to end the â€Å"copy and don’t innovate† state of mind that Chinese people have and have had for long. But there still isn’t a sign of change because the problem is now in people’s behaviors and beliefs, and that is not easy to modify. The government’s leap forward is a good thing to reassure foreign companies and investors. Don’t waste time! 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020

How to Grow Black Crystals

This crystal growing recipe produces black crystals. You can make them solid black like black diamonds, or translucent black like smoky quartz. Materials Black food coloring is used to make black crystals. While this crystal recipe calls for borax, you could grow black sugar crystals or rock candy, if you prefer. The black pipe-cleaner is not essential, but it provides a good surface for crystal growth and is not visible underneath the dark crystals. BoraxHot waterWide mouth jar or glassBlack pipe-cleanersBlack food coloring Directions Bend the black pipe-cleaner into any shape you like, as long as it will fit inside the glass or jar you are using to grow the crystals. Bend an end of the pipe-cleaner over a pencil or butter knife so that the shape will be hanging inside the jar. Try to keep the pipe-cleaner shape from touching the sides or bottom of the container. Remove the shape and set it aside.Prepare the crystal growing solution. Fill the jar with boiling water. Stir borax into the water a little at a time until it stops dissolving. You will need about 3 tablespoons of borax for each cup of water. It is fine if a small amount of undissolved borax remains on the bottom of the container.Stir in 5 to 10 drops of black food coloring. A smaller number of drops will produce translucent black crystals. If you use a lot of black food coloring, you can get solid black crystals.Place the pipe-cleaner shape in the jar. Allow the crystals to grow several hours or overnight. Try to avoid disturbing the crystals. You wont b e able to see into the jar to see how they are doing. Wait several hours before checking on their progress.When you are satisfied with the crystals, remove them and hang them or set them on a paper towel to dry. The black food coloring can stain your hands, clothing, and furniture.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Biology Post Lab on Osmosis and Diffusion Free Essays

Brian Toohey Biology Mrs. Heimforth 12/06/10 Diffuse the Osmosis Section 2: Introduction Step 1: The scientific concept of this lab was to see how osmosis transferred the substance through the cells to reach equilibrium. Step 2: My hypothesis was that the bag with 60% sucrose then it would be heavier than the bag with tap water or 30% sucrose. We will write a custom essay sample on Biology Post Lab on Osmosis and Diffusion or any similar topic only for you Order Now I thought this because I thought that there would be more of a substance change in 60% sucrose. Section 3: Methods First get 3 pieces of the same length of tubing then get 6 pieces of string. Fold one half of the tube over and tie the end with string.Then add 5 ml of 30% sucrose solution in the tubes. Squeeze the bag gently to release air fold it over and tie it with another piece of string. Rinse bags under water then dry. Then weigh bags to nearest tenth of a gram and record. Then place one bag in each of the beakers. Then let them sit for 30 minutes do not touch. Remove bags quickly rinse and dry and reweigh. Then record results. Section 4: Results Step 1: | 60% sucrose | 30% sucrose | Tap Water | before | 6. 2 | 4. 6 | 5. 4 | after | 4. 3 | 4. 5 | 4. 8 | Step 2: As the sucrose decreases so does the weight.I have found that when you decrease the amount of sucrose it will cause the water to go outward making the bag weigh less. Section 5: Step 1: The lab experimentation did not support my hypothesis because the weight decreased more with the sucrose. Step 2: The specific data that made my hypothesis wrong is the fact that when we added less sucrose the after weight decreased as shown in my graph. Step 3: The results did not support my hypothesis because when the water was greater on the inside it went outside by using osmosis but when the water was greater on the outside it went inside making the bag heavier.Step 4: When we were conducting the experiment one bag might have sat in the cups to long. Step 5: I have learned that water is the only thing that can be sent through the cell without using energy. I also learned that through diffusion smell spreads. Step 6: I learned that it is very hard to keep track of things you don’t label it takes a lot of memory. ;)Section 6: References Postlehwait, John H. , and Janet L. Hopson. Modern Biology. Austin: Holt, Rinehard, and Winston, 2006. 65-73. Print How to cite Biology Post Lab on Osmosis and Diffusion, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Philosophy for Zen Meditation and Buddhism- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about thePhilosophy for Zen Meditation and Buddhism. Answer: Zen Meditation is a part of Zazen. When people meditate, they have a goal to seek something such as calmness of mind, good breathing, touching inner soul etc. In Zazen, the whole idea of meditation is to not have a goal and still meditate. Zazen is also known as Zen Buddhism. This was introduced to Japan from China. This involves the seeking of ones own Buddha nature with the help of meditation. The monks who follow this meditation process live in present instead of letting their mind flow in past or future(Asianartmuseum 2009). Zen Buddhism is divided into two sections. It consists of two schools of thought, one gradual and other sudden approach for enlightenment. Gradual school teaches only a single way for practicing meditation which is also known as Zazen. It can be practiced via few methods but no position has any certain spiritual importance. These positions are usually for creating stability, breathing ability through diaphragm and to create comfort. While in sudden school, it is believed that enlightenment can occur instantly. Koans and mondos are used to help the practitioner so that he can gain more insight and feel enlightened(Berg 2016). When Buddhism is practiced, the person meditating does not try to go in a hypnotic state. Buddhists certainly want to avoid duality through meditating and this should involve the body and the mind, both becoming the single entity. Practicing Zen is to know that thoughts are faculty of mind and they should not stop or ignored. Instead of ignoring the thoughts, thinking should be acknowledged but then it should be put aside in the mind so that the person should not worry or fear or stress about anything. This is defined as the liberation too which frees the mind from all the sufferings (James 2003, Pp 147-150). Zen meditation actually owes its inception to Buddhism which was practiced in early India where people used to be in profound state of meditation also known as Samadhi. Buddhists are required to master three components in meditation. One out of them is Samadhi. The other two are ethical percepts observations called Sila and wisdom of non discrimination called as Prajna. Zen Buddhism says that non discriminatory wisdom defined knowledge which is practical and experimental. In Zen meditation, theoretical wisdom is language game in which the use of language is done for the discrimination as it is known to be the part of the decision making(Chatraporn 2009). There has been no such country which is touched by Buddhism but it developed where the tradition of meditation did not grow or started. It was actually developed when the origin of physical and mental yogic forms were done in Western India. These traditions were taken care of in Ceylon and Southeast Asia was celebrated as the most important mean for realizing the goal of Buddhism. While in East Asia, Zen Buddhism has been a major part of Buddhists. Zen grew from Taoism and Buddhism and has been considered a unique form of Buddhism since centauries(Amihai and Kozhevnikov 2015). Zen never claims that that people from Buddhist background and trainers can only achieve realization. Zen accepts everything that is true and real irrespective of any religion and it also recognizes those who have actually achieved realization. What seems to be not real and trivial to Zen, it keeps that aside. Zen has changed itself with time to time. It does not have to deal with the learning and the trainings as it transmits directly. In Western part, there are people who actually use the name of Zen for attracting people or followers. While Buddhism is always advertised, Zen is not(Swearer 1971). Arguably, the discourse of Zen also destabilizes the categories which are ontological and the binaries of body and the mind. This has diverse temporal orientation because the person who practices mindfulness is not attached to the past or the future and focus on the present only(Foulk 2012). From Zen Buddhism, the celebration of mindfulness always displays its capability to nurture creativity, actions which are flexible and learnings.It focuses on the meta-level conditions of entrepreneurial behavior instead of specifying how and when entrepreneurial spirit should manifest. This can be taken as the chance to grab the work which is productive(Saari and Harni 2016). As it is discussed that Meditation is the foundation of Zen Buddhism, it is the main aspect of religion. Zen can be called as meditation where the path is actually the goal. Zazen could be practiced in few different ways but it has no specific positions or importance except comfort and stability. Breathing is important for meditation. Buddhism came first and then Zen occurred later from Buddhism. Yet, Zen has more approach and followers(OperationMeditation 2018). It is because Zen only teaches the ways to be happy and to calm up the mind without any goal. Being in present is something everyone should learn. No worries of the past or the future should trouble any person. Hence, Zen Buddhism should be practiced. References Amihai, Ido, and Maria Kozhevnikov. "The Influence of Buddhist Meditation Traditions on the Autonomic System and Attention." BioMed Research International, 2015. Asianartmuseum. Zen Buddhism. 2009. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_WAi2fwUqN4 (accessed April 22, 2018). Berg, Jonas Gabriel. "Zen Buddhism and Medi." duo.uio.no. 2016. https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/55073/Zen-and-Media.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed April 23, 2018). Chatraporn, Surapeepan. "The Doubly Eastern Synder: Zen Buddhist Philosophy." Journal of Humanities Regular, 2009. Foulk, Griffith T. Just Sitting. 2012. https://terebess.hu/zen/mesterek/Foulk.html (accessed April 24, 2018). James, Simon P. "Zen Buddhism and the intrinsic value of nature." Contemporary Buddhism 4, no. 2 (2003): 143-157. OperationMeditation. How are Buddhism and Zen Related? Eight Interesting Facts. 2018. https://operationmeditation.com/discover/how-are-buddhism-and-zen-related-eight-interesting-facts/ (accessed April 23, 2018). Saari, Antti, and Esko Harni. "Zen and the art of everything: Governing." Ephemera: theory politics in organization 16, no. 4 (2016). Swearer, Donald K. "Secrets Of Lotus." terebess.hu. 1971. https://terebess.hu/zen/mesterek/Secrets%20of%20the%20Lotus_Swearer.pdf (accessed April 23, 2018).

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Great Gatsby And Fall Of American Dream Essays - The Great Gatsby

Great Gatsby And Fall Of American Dream The book 'The Great Gatsby' by F. Scott Fitzgerald was an 'icon of its time.' The book discusses topics that were important, controversial and interesting back in 1920's America. The novel is 'an exploration of the American Dream as it exists in a corrupt period of history.' The main themes in the book are the decay of morals and values and the frustration of a 'modern' society. The Great Gatsby describes the decay of the American Dream and the want for money and materialism. This novel also describes the gap between the rich and the poor (Gatsby and the Wilsons, West Egg and the Valley of the Ashes) by comparing the differences between the Western United States (traditional western culture) and the Eastern United States (money obsessed values). On a smaller scale this could be seen as the difference between the West Egg (the 'new, money) and the East egg (the 'old' money). The 1920's were a time of corruption and the degradation of moral values for the United States and many other countries. World War One had just ended and people were reveling in the materialism that came with the end of it, new mass produced commodities such as motor cars and radios were filling people's driveways and houses, money was more accessible (before the Great Depression). Cars were becoming a social symbol in the 1920s as we can see with Gatsby's five cars, one of which he gives to Nick and one of which kills Myrtle Wilson later on in the novel. Herbert Hoover (an American President) said in 1925 "We will root out poverty and put two cars in every garage." The parties that Gatsby held every week in the summer were a symbol of the carelessness of the time. Gatsby would hide in the house while the 'guests', most of whom were not even invited, would party, eat and drink until the early hours of the morning without even meeting the guest or even knowing who he was. People would turn up just to be seen or reported in the local newspapers "In his blue garden people came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne." This shows the carelessness of the guests. Another quote about the parties refers to the way the guests devour the endless supply of food and never give a thought as to who gave it to them. "Every Friday five crates of oranges and Lemons arrived from a fruiterer In New York- Every Monday these same oranges and lemons left his backdoor in a pyramid of pulpless halves." This is also a symbol; it relates the 'pulpless halves' to the rather 'empty' guests, soulless people obsessed by image and wealth, a corruption of the American Dream. Another sign of the fall of the American Dream in The Great Gatsby is the way Gatsby makes his money. Gatsby gets his fortune through the illegal sale of alcohol ('bootlegging'). The sale of alcohol was prohibited in the United States in the 1920s. Gatsby came from the western United States where there was 'old money.' There he met Dan Cody who taught him how to 'bootleg.' As Gatsby became richer he moved to West Egg in New York. Gatsby's house is a rather artificial place, the house was originally built to impress Daisy with his so-called wealth, and this is a sign of a corrupt way of'winning' love through money and wealth. Gatsby's house is furnished well with old looking ornaments and (probably) second hand antiques, Gatsby's house also has a library which is full of 'uncut' literature. The conversation between Jordan and an unnamed man at one of Gatsby's parties talks about the books: "Absolutely real - have real pages and everything. I'd thought they'd be a nice durable cardboard." These books and antiques are just Gatsby's way of showing off his wealth to others, however Gatsby doesn't really care for materialism, we can tell this because his bedroom, the only room he really ever uses, is empty compared to the rest of the house. Gatsby's love life is also a sign of declining morals, and also a sign of further corruption of the American Dream. Daisy has an affair with Gatsby; Gatsby then gets concerned that Daisy does not tell Tom about her affair with him in chapter six. Eventually Daisy tells Tom about her affair with Jay Gatsby. The climax of the story comes when Gatsby tells Tom that Daisy never loved him. The fall of the

Friday, March 6, 2020

Pew projects Essays - Demography, Population, Immigration

Pew projects Essays - Demography, Population, Immigration Prof Lauren Conj Comm 301 15 November 2015 Pew projects that in forty years time, no racial or ethnic group will constitute a majority of the U.S. population, as whites are projected to become less than half of the U.S. population by 2055. Therefore, by 2065, the nation would be 46 percent white, 24 percent Hispanic, 14 percent Asian and 13 percent black. Moving forward, Pew projects, births to current Americans will be vastly outnumbered by new arrivals unless Congress hits the pause button on issuing new green cards. If that doesnt happen, Pew projects an immigration flow so large that nine-tenths of all new residents will be immigrants or their children. In a 2012 report, the Center for Immigration Studies observed that: if the level of immigration the Census Bureau foresees in 2050 were to continue after that date, the U.S. population would reach 618 million by 2100 double the 2010 population. Those numbers could go even higher as many politicians, most notably , are pushing to dramatically expand the number of green cards, foreign workers and refugees. These limitless immigration expansions are sought by donors who want to keep workers salaries as low as possible. Today, after five decades of large-scale immigration, real average wages are lower than they were in 1973, shortly after the green card gusher began. Because foreign workers do jobs for such low pay, their incomes are padded with welfare. A census data report authored by the nonpartisan Center for Immigration Studies recently found that immigrant households use welfare at significantly higher rates than native households, with more than half of U.S. immigrants on welfare. Manhattan Institute scholar Heather Mac Donald has observed foreign-born Hispanics and their American-born children use welfare at rates which vastly exceed those of native-born whites. Native-born Hispanics collected welfare at over twice the rate as native-born whites, Mac Donald writes. Moreover, the Hispanic population accounted for almost the entire increase in poverty from 1990 to 2004. As Washington Post columnist Robert Samuelson has reported:

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) - Essay Example As a result of this, many corporations resolved to embark on the programs of CSR in an attempt to offset their effects on the society along with improving their corporate practices in general. Companies that decide to implement a CSR program start out by discussing the program in their codes of ethics and mission statements so that the interested parties and stockholders become aware of the program. Many companies presently have a separate CSR department that not only ensures that the company’s CSR program is noticed by the public but also manages the social programs of the company. Companies generally vary in the scope of their CSR program. A vast majority of the companies start implementing the CSR program at home by offering more health benefits and higher wages to their employees. Addressing the corporate suppliers is usually the step that follows that tends to create a constant supply chain with practices that are ethically justifiable. The advantages of having a CSR program mainly include good reputation in the market and in the eyes of the consumers, increased brand loyalty on the part of the consumers, and a competitive advantage for the companies particularly when they bid for contracts. The disadvantages of having a CSR program include incurring extra cost to do the operations that can otherwise be done in a cost-effective manner, though the latter would be more unfriendly toward the environment or the society at large. Many companies these days have a trend of adding a charitable aspect to their CSR programs. An example of this can be sponsor initiatives directed at the development of the community in the regions where coffee is produced by a company that produces and sells coffee. Likewise, a company that produces oil might take measures for the restoration of habitat in a region that has historically been used for the extraction of oil. In addition to that, many companies add this charitable aspect by donating funds to the charities of their own